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Theoretical Approaches in Psychology (Approaches and by Matt Jarvis

By Matt Jarvis

Psychologists use a number of rules and theories, all of which view the individual and the research of the individual in very other ways. Theoretical methods in Psychology introduces and descriptions the six major methods and considers how every one has helped psychologists comprehend human behaviour, notion and feeling. The Routledge Modular Psychology sequence is a very new method of introductory point psychology, tailored for the hot modular variety of instructing. every one publication covers an issue in additional aspect than any huge textbook can, permitting instructor and scholar to choose fabric precisely to fit any specific direction or venture. specifically written for these scholars new to higher-level examine, even if in class, university or college, the books comprise the next designed gains to aid with method: perform essays with expert statement to teach the best way to in achieving the next grade bankruptcy summaries and summaries of key learn word list and extra examining development and assessment workouts.

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Whilst these techniques do have some rather sinister applications (see for example Banyard, 1999 in this series for a discussion), they can also be used benevolently in a number of situations. Psychologists can use classical conditioning techniques to reduce or remove the symptoms of phobias (see for example Cave, 1999 in this series), or to help to remove unwanted behaviours, such as paedophilia. Operant conditioning techniques can be used to help rehabilitate people such as long-term psychiatric patients who have been out of contact with ‘normal’ society for a while.

This is exactly what Skinner demonstrated in his superstitious pigeon study. More recently Matute (1996) demonstrated the same phenomenon in humans by making the computers of working students emit irritating noises. Students tended to try to stop the noise, for example by pressing buttons. Actually the computers stopped emitting the noise automatically (the cessation of the noise was thus an uncontrollable reinforcer), but because the students always tried to stop it, the stopping of the noise always followed their actions.

Freud believed that the phallic stage was the most important of the developmental stages. When boys realise that they have a penis and girls do not, their unconscious response is castration anxiety, the belief that girls have already been castrated and the 44 THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY fear that they might be next! Their response is to repress their desire for the mother and identify with the father (in much the same way as we might identify with a bully and become like them in order to overcome our fear of them).

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