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Quantum Theory

Quantum Physics And Measurement by V K Shrivastava

By V K Shrivastava

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The number with h = + and ¢ = + is therefore represented by the sector AOe. Similarly n(¢= -, ()= +) is given by COE andn(h = +, ()= +) by BOD. CieariyAOC + COE must be greater than or equal or BOD so it follows that n(h = +, ¢ = +) + n(¢ = -, () = +) c n(h = +, () = +). What has all this got to do with the properties of pairs of polarised photons? Imagine first that we could measure the polarisation of a photon in three different directions, without disturbing it in any way and find out whether it was: (i) parallel or perpendicular to the horizontal, (ii) parallel or perpendicular to a direction at cj> to the horizontal, and (iii) paraIlel or perpendicular to a third direction at e to the horizontal.

Or, putting it another way, the act of measuring the left-hand polarisation also constitute a measurement of the polarisation of the right-hand photon. But just a minute! This would be perfectly all right if we were making a conventional classical measurement, but we saw in the previous chapter that an important feature of any quantum measurement is that it affects the system being measured. We don't know what the polarisation of the left-hand photon actually was before it was measured, but it is very improbable that it was exactly horizontal or vertical.

Instead of treating the wave and particle models as alternatives, this theory proposes that both are present simultaneously in a quantum situation. The wave is no longer directly detectable, as the electromagnetic wave was thought to be, but has the function of guiding the photon along and adjusting its polarisation. Thus the 45° polarised,photon approaches the HV polariser and sees the guiding wave being split into two parts. It follows one or other path (probably at random because this form of hidden-variable theory does not maintain determinism) and has its polarisation a~justed to fit the wave in that path.

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