By David T. Pratt (auth.), L. Douglas Smoot, David T. Pratt (eds.)
viii and methods can be tailored to different coal conversion and combustion difficulties, we haven't thought of combustion or gasification in fluidized or fastened beds or in situ tactics. furthermore, we've not thought of different fossil-fuel combustion difficulties linked to oil shale, tar sands, etc., even if many points of pulverized-coal combustion may relate to those difficulties. For the case of pulverized-coal versions, we've tried to supply an in depth description of the version foundations. components I and II of this publication emphasize normal rules for describing reacting, turbulent or laminar, multiphase platforms. normal conservation equations are built and summarized. the foundation for computing thermochemical equilibrium in complicated, heterogeneous combos is gifted, including innovations for swift computation and connection with required enter facts. cost techniques are then mentioned, together with pertinent features of turbulence, chemical kinetics, radiative warmth move, and gas-particle convective-diffusive interactions. a lot of half II offers with parameters and coefficients for describing those complicated cost procedures. This a part of the e-book presents steered values of coefficients and parameters for treating complicated reacting flows. elements I and II might be appropriate to be used in a complicated direction in reacting flows, and feature been written partially with that during brain. half III bargains with extra particular points of pulverized-coal features and expense methods. Following a basic description of coal constitution and structure, coal pyrolysis and char oxidation procedures are considered.
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Viii and methods can be tailored to different coal conversion and combustion difficulties, we haven't thought of combustion or gasification in fluidized or mounted beds or in situ procedures. additionally, we've not thought of different fossil-fuel combustion difficulties linked to oil shale, tar sands, and so forth.
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Extra resources for Pulverized-Coal Combustion and Gasification: Theory and Applications for Continuous Flow Processes
26), which relates the mass effiux from the particles to a source of mass addition to the gas, into Eq. (24) yields the integral form of the gas-phase continuity equation: (d/dt) f p~dV+ l p~v9 ·dA = l Jcv Jcv Js rPdV (106) The integral of the bulk density over the volume is simply the mass of the gas in the volume, written in abbreviated form as rn 9 = r p~ dv Jcv (107) The mass addition over the volume due to particle burning is also abbreviated: (108) The scalar product p~v 9 ·dAis the gas mass effiux from the volume through area dA.
Consider, once again, the control volume for the gas-phase illustrated in Figure 2. The energy per unit mass of the gas is ig+ v;;2. Combining the Reynolds transport theorem for energy change of the system with the first law Clayton T. Crowe and L. Douglas Smoot 32 of thermodynamics gives Q- W =(d/dt) f p~(i9 +v;/2) dV+ f Jcv p 9(i 9 +v;/2)v9 • dA S' +f s;, Ps(is+v 2 /2)w · dA (78) where the subscript s refers to the control surface surrounding the particles and v is the speed of the gas at the particle control surface.
Consider once more the control surface for the gas shown in Figure 2. (w'+vp)w·dA (46) where w is the gas velocity at the particle surface with respect to the particle's center of mass. If the particle is burning, w' is the vector sum of w and the surface regression velocity. Assuming a spherical particle and a uniform momentum flux over the particle surface allows the last integral in Eq. w'w(l-0) dA (47) where w' and w are the magnitudes of w' and w. The surface forces acting on the gas are the pressure and shear forces on the surface S' and aerodynamic forces on the surface S~.