By George Karkavelas, Nickolaos Tascos (auth.), Antonios Drevelegas (eds.)
This quantity offers a deeper figuring out of the prognosis of mind tumors through correlating radiographic imaging gains with the underlying pathological abnormalities. All smooth imaging modalities are used to accomplish a diagnostic evaluation of mind tumors with emphasis on contemporary advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. top of the range illustrations depicting universal and unusual imaging features of quite a lot of mind tumors are provided and analysed, drawing recognition to the ways that those features replicate diverse facets of pathology. vital theoretical concerns also are mentioned. because the first version, chapters were revised and up-to-date and new fabric has been further, together with distinct info at the scientific program of sensible MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Radiologists and different clinicians attracted to the present diagnostic method of mind tumors will locate this ebook to be a useful and enlightening medical tool.
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Additional resources for Imaging of Brain Tumors with Histological Correlations
Lymphoma is a hypercellular tumor that has been found to present with high signal intensity on DWI and low ADC values. Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuro ectodermal tumor that also shows restricted diffusion pattern due to the densely packed cells and high nuclearto-cytoplasmic ratio. Diffusion-weighted MR images can be used to discriminate the tumor tissue from edema, cyst, or necrosis. 8). 21 Atypical and malignant meningiomas also tend to be markedly hyperintense on diffusion-weighted MR images and exhibit lower ADC values, while benign meningiomas have a variable appearance on diffusionweighted images and higher ADC values compared with normal brain, with the exception of densely calcified or psammomatous meningiomas, which have low ADC values .
High degree of anaplasia, microvascular proliferation and necrosis The p16INK4A gene (orp16CDKN2A) maps to chromosome 9p21, a locus commonly deleted in a variety of human malignancies. Inactivation of the p16INK4A gene results in uninhibited phosphorylation of the pRb, and subsequently to uncontrolled cell growth. Alterations in expression of p16INK4A protein have been described to be caused either by a decrease in mRNA or protein stability or by a decreased transcription of the p16INK4A gene due to methylation of CpG islands or rarely by mutation [12–14].
Multi-shot EPI proved to be superior to single shot echo planar sequences in terms of lesion conspicuity and delineation . In a study single-shot EPI depicted up to 70% of multiple sclerosis lesions larger than 1cm and only 23% of smaller lesions (<5 mm) . When multi-shot A. Drevelegas and N. Papanikolaou echo-planar technique is used, the sensitivity for lesion detection increases to 98% for lesions larger than 1cm and 77% for lesions smaller than 5 mm. Despite the increased spatial resolution provided with multi-shot technique, EPI is still suffering from decreased spatial resolution, poor fat suppression, and increased ghosting and susceptibility artifacts (signal loss and geometric distortion).