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Ethics of Scientific Research by Kristin Shrader-Frechette

By Kristin Shrader-Frechette

Demanding long-held theories of clinical rationality and remoteness, Kristin Shrader-Frechette argues that examine can't be 'value free.' particularly, any learn will bring up very important ethical matters for these concerned, matters not just of truthfulness yet of possibility to investigate topics, 3rd events, and most people.

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For example, all federally funded research in the United States involving human and animal subjects must be reviewed for both scientific design and ethical adequacy. S. government agencies now must explicitly address questions of research ethics such as whether humans or other animals will be research subjects and whether an institutional review board has evaluated the research protocols or procedures. In 1982 the Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences published four research ethics principles: Experimental subjects ought to give free informed consent to the research.

If researchers paid more attention to the unbiased presentation of all the data on smoking, and if they noted the real costs of tobacco, then government policy regarding smoking might change. Moreover, with heavy taxing of tobacco, government could cover more health costs associated with its use and also prevent the needless loss of lives and environmental pollution smoking causes. In short, if scientists (economists, for instance) accepted responsibility for the policy decisions (regarding taxing tobacco, for example) following indirectly from their research methods, then their research might not contribute to so much (tobacco-induced) human and environmental misery.

51 For some scientific researchers, knowledge has become intellectual property. S. S. federal research money pours into defense-related projects. 53 These statistics suggest that research secrecy and fear of industrial espionage limit societal benefits and growth in knowledge. Also, a few scientific researchers, able to monopolize a certain area of work due to funders' secrecy requirements, have an unfair advantage over their colleagues. In several countries, some areas of university research likewise may run the risk of becoming conduits for the military-industrial complex.

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