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Extra resources for Electronics for Hobbyists (Unit 1. Direct Current)
But even though the circuit is poorly designed, we can still analyze it. r The output of the And gate at the top is F•T. r The output is the Nand gate is (L•Q)’ = L + Q . r The inner Or gate produces T + (L + Q ). r Hence the output M = F•T + T + L + Q . This result can be expressed in canonical form, but it takes some doing. We could expand each of the terms so that all the letters are present. That takes some writing; let’s do it with the term F•T: r I need to include the variables L and Q, so I’ll use theorem T5 to do this: F•T = F•(L + L )•(Q + Q )•T.
Somebody or some group developed them over a long period of time as there was more need for numbers and counting, and finally arithmetic. Consider first a simple prehistoric tribe living somewhere. Each family had a cow, so the concept of “one” was well known. Some larger families needed two cows to sustain them, so the concept of “two” was probably also well known. But as you might expect, certain well-to-do families had many cows. Hence the concept of “many” was most likely also known. So this culture had a very simple counting system: one–two–many.
So where does this get us? Just the facts, just the facts. What I’ve just covered is mostly background information so that, when you encounter the chips of the real world, you won’t be totally illiterate! 7 SUMMARY Well, we’ve gotten this all started and you’ve seen three logic circuits. After looking into what digital systems are, we designed a combinational circuit for the turn signals. We started with an incompletely-specified word problem, produced specifications, reduced these to a truth table, and created a logic circuit to do the job.