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Electronics 2. Checkbook by S. A. Knight

By S. A. Knight

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For this purpose, a heat sink is employed, Fig 12. If the transistor 54 is clipped or bolted to a large conducting area of aluminium or copper plate (which may have coolingfins),cooling is achieved by convection and radiation. Heat sinks are usually blackened to assist radiation and are normally used where large power dissipations are involved. With small transistors, heat sinks are unnecessary. Silicon transistors particularly have such small leakage currents that thermal problems rarely arise.

These are important relationships. 7 The characteristics of a transistor, like any active device, are based on the input voltages and currents, the output voltages and currents and the relationships that exist between input and output variations of these. Although a transistor is a three-terminal device, because one of these is always common to both input and output circuits, we may consider it as having a pair of input terminals and a pair of output terminals, see Fig 7. The characteristics can be displayed in graphical form showing the variations of input and output currents and voltages.

The voltage at the collector will therefore be V c c — ICRL ~ 12 — 5 = 7 V. This value of VQ^ is the mean (or quiescent) level about which the output signal voltage will swing alternately positive and negative. c. operating point. c. operating points can be pin-pointed on the input and output characteristics of the transistor. 1 mA, KB E = 0-75 V, say. Fig 4 shows the Ic — VQE characteristics, with the operating point Y positioned at IQ = 5 mA, VQE = 7 V. It is usual to choose the operating points Y somewhere near the centre of the graph.

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