By U.S. Department of Transportation
This 1999 rfile was once written as a source for individuals in a brief direction overlaying the subject of development and layout of drilled shaft foundations for bridges and different constructions. it's the moment version of the FHWA workbook on development and layout of drilled shafts.
Read Online or Download Drilled Shafts - Construction Procedures and Design Methods (Publication No. FHWA-IF-99-025) PDF
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Additional resources for Drilled Shafts - Construction Procedures and Design Methods (Publication No. FHWA-IF-99-025)
E. Chamberlain designed the foundations to consist of 92 caissons, 4½ ft diameter, placed to bear on limestone at a depth of around 50 ft. The excavation was supported by cylindrical sections of 3/16” boiler plate “to prevent the collapse of earth surrounding the excavation” (Chamberlain, 1891), and backfilled not with concrete but with vitrified brick laid in hydraulic cement. A drawing from the Kansas City Star newspaper is reproduced in Figure 1-5 below. Chamberlain’s description of this approach at the Annual Convention of the American Institute of Architects in Chicago in the fall of 1890 may have contributed to the adoption of this technique for several structures in that city soon afterward.
Figure 2-2 shows a typical subsurface profile from ReMi measurements. Using correlations from borings and sampling, it was established that the 600 ft/sec velocity contour represents a boundary between undifferentiated soft/loose soils and stiff/dense soils, while the 2,000 ft/sec contour represents the approximate boundary between overlying soils and sound rock (basalt). Resistivity is a fundamental electrical property of geomaterials that varies with material type and water content. To measure resistivity from the ground surface (Figure 2-3), electrical current is induced through two current electrodes (C1 and C2) while change in voltage is measured by two potential electrodes (P1 and P2).
Therefore, changes in measured apparent resistivity with increasing electrode spacing are indicative of a change in material at depth. In this way variations in material properties with depth (layering) can be determined. The second method is a profiling survey, in which the electrode spacing is fixed but the electrode group is moved horizontally along a line (profile) between measurements. Changes in measured apparent resistivity are used to deduce lateral variations in material type. Electrical resistivity methods are inexpensive and best used to complement seismic refraction surveys and borings.