By Manish Tiwari, Arun Prakash A K Singh

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**Sample text**

The way result is manipulated is different for signed and unsigned arithmetic. (a) UNSIGNED (1) If a carry was generated in step 4 then the result is positive(+) and the digits in the result shows the correct magnitude of result. (2) If there is no carry from MSD in step 4 then the result is negative (–) and the digits in result is not showing the correct magnitude. So must go for a post processing (Step 7) of result to determine the correct magnitude of the result. , MSD < r/2) then the result is +ve and representing the correct magnitude.

1’s complement of result (1011)2 = (0100)2 so final result = –(0100)2 or –(4)10 Note that when (in example (ii) the result was negative (step 2), MSB of the result was 1. When (in example (i)) the result was positive the MSB was 0. The same can be observed in 2’s complement subtraction. 2’s complement Subtraction Method of 2’s complement is similar to 1’s complement subtraction except the end around carry (EAC). The rules are listed below: 1. Take 2’s complement of subtrahend. 2. Add 2’s complement of subtrahend to minuend.

The bit combination are referred to as ‘CODEWORDS’. There are many different coding schemes, each having some particular advantages and characteristics. One of the main efforts in coding is to standardize a set of universal codes that can be used by all. In a broad sense we can classify the codes into five groups: (i) Weighted Binary codes (ii) Non-weighted codes (iii) Error–detecting codes (iv) Error–correcting codes (v) Alphanumeric codes. 1 Weighted Binary Codes In weighted binary codes, each position of a number represents a specific weight.