By Joseph Margolis
Culture and Cultural Entities provides an unique philosophical research of the character and clarification of cultural phenomena, with certain consciousness to ontology and method. It addresses intensive such themes as: the relation among actual and organic nature and cultural phenomena; the research of intentionality; the character and clarification of motion; causality; causal clarification and the harmony of technological know-how; theories of language; historicity; animal and human intelligence; mental and social phenomena; expertise and evolution. Its technique includes a type of non-reductive materialism, examines a variety of perspectives, and is very readable, making it appropriate for execs, complex undergraduate and graduate scholars, and an educated common viewers. a brand new bankruptcy was once additional to offer a feeling of pertinent tendencies because the visual appeal of the 1st version, relatively with admire to the historical past of philosophy, pragmatism, the cohesion of technology, and evolution. The solidarity, scope, and straightforwardness of the speculation are well-regarded.
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Additional info for Culture and Cultural Entities: Toward a New Unity of Science
23 See Donald R. Griffin , The Question of A nimal Awareness (New York: Rock efeller Universit y Press , 1976 ). 24 D. M. Armstrong, Belief . Truth and Knowledge (Cambridge : Cambridge Universit y Press, 1973 ); see also , Peter Geach , Mental A cts (London : Routledge and Kegan Paul , 1957),and Zeno Vendler, Res Cogitans (Ithaca: Cornell University Press ,1972). 2S Daniel C. : Bradford Book s, 1978), pp . 3-4 . , p. 3. 27 See Claud e Levi-Strau ss, The Raw and the Cooked , tran s. John and Doreen Weightman (New York : Harper and Row , 1969).
New York : Macmillan, 1953); and P. F. Strawson, Individuals (London : Methuen, 1959); but also, P. T. Geach, Mental Acts (London : Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1957). 44 See for instance Donald Davidson, 'Thought and Talk', in Mind and Language; Zeno Vendle r, op. cit. ; Norman Malcolm, 'Thoughtless Brutes', Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Assocition , XLVI (1972-73); cf. further, Margolis, Persons and Minds, Chapter 9 . 45 See Quine, op. ; and Joseph Margolis, 'The Stubborn Opacity of Belief Contexts', Theoria, XLIII (1977), and 'Arguments with Intentional and Extensional Features,' Southern Journal of Philosophy, XV (1977) .
Secondly, it can be shown that, since the paradigms of conscious life are supplied by 22 JOSEPH MARGOLIS the human ability to report and understand one's thoughts and feelings, all ascriptions of consciousness and mental states are linguistically modelled , even for creatures lacking language. This , of course, is a corollary of the anthropomorphized nature of animal studies . Thirdly , no methodological skepticism (as distinct from error) is possible with regard to the correctness of our description and explanation of animal minds, simply because animals that are not linguistically competent share no reporting function among themselves and pursue no efforts at a theoretical understanding of themselves or of others.