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Creating an Islamic State: Khomeini and the Making of a New by Vanessa Martin

By Vanessa Martin

During this quantity, Vanessa Martin makes a groundbreaking contribution at the dynamics of the Iranian Revolution and the Islamist revival particularly correct within the context of the controversy coming up out of Iran's fresh elections. Political Islam and its fresh violent bi-products first turned the point of interest of foreign awareness following the luck of the 1979 Iranian Revolution led by means of the Ayatollah Khomeini. This outstanding publication is the 1st to investigate the ideological roots of an Islamic nation as conceived through Khomeini. Martin unearths a lot of the muse at the back of Khomeini’s political considering being inspired by way of western assets.

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Thus the war did not bring with it the breakdown of the remaining traditional structures of society nor the corresponding opportunity for the mobilization of ordinary people in support of the state and the development of a more united national awareness. On the contrary, with a weak state and a smaller army many areas reverted to semi-autonomy and traditional powers regained lost influence. fm Page 17 Thursday, April 27, 2000 1:10 PM THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 17 outright alliance, no opportunity was provided for military experience such as that gained by the Transjordanians and the Jews of Palestine.

The shah was anxious to encourage industry. The Third (1963–67) and Fourth (1968–72) Development Plans stressed improvement of the infrastructure and state incentives to initiatives in private industry, resulting in rapid growth in the industrial sector. In combination with his agricultural policy, this led to migration to urban areas, where many lived in squalid housing and shanty towns in the south of Tehran which greatly contrasted with the mansions of the elite in the north of the city. Between 1956 and 1976 the urban population of Iran rose from 6 million to 16 million.

Resurgence was meant to imply regeneration, unity, solidarity and strength, goals also dear to the Iraqi and Syrian Ba'th parties. The shah dreamed of becoming the leader of the fifth industrial power in the world, and of Iran being the major military power in the Middle East. His regime in the meantime became increasingly repressive as SAVAK grew and came to monitor every kind of organization – particularly the left, the universities and the Iranian Committee for the Defence of Freedom and Human Rights.

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