By Emilio Quaia
Examines intimately the several medical purposes of microbubble-based distinction brokers. Explains the rules underlying using contrast-specific imaging options and the exam technique. comprises a number of fine quality illustrations, together with many in colour. Written via well-known specialists.
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Additional info for Contrast Media in Ultrasonography: Basic Principles and Clinical Applications (Medical Radiology Diagnostic Imaging)
Safety – Coated microbubbles should pose no risk to the patient. For existing contrast agents these are conflicting requirements. In order to achieve a large contrast effect, and thereby minimise the dose required, the scattered signal from the coated microbubbles must be distinct from that generated by tissue. At present, the most effective way of obtaining a distinctive signal is to use a high acoustic power of insonation (high mechanical index, MI). This not E. Stride only increases the amplitude of the signal and the proportion of coated microbubbles excited, but also causes the microbubbles to behave non-linearly.
Jetting corresponds to asymmetric microbubble collapse, which causes the velocity of the upper bubble wall to exceed the velocity of the lower wall. For this phenomenon the fluid above the bubble is accelerated and focused during collapse, leading to the formation of a high-speed liquid jet (Postema et al. 2004). US energy-mediated destruction, expressed as disappearance time, of microbubbles is directly related to US intensity, duration and frequency (Walker et al. 1997). Microbubble destruction produces the emission of a broadband frequency (Fig.
1 Contrast Agent Design The first step in any design process is to define the requirements for a particular application. In the case of diagnostic imaging, the aim is to obtain a satisfactory image of the region of interest, quickly, safely and, if possible, economically. In terms of equipment costs and portability, scanning time and patient risk, US is superior to alternative imaging techniques such as CT and MR imaging. In terms of image quality, however, it is generally inferior, and the requirement for a contrast agent is to lessen this disadvantage by increasing the reflectivity of a particular feature compared with that of the surrounding tissue.