By Krajcinovic, D., editors J. Lemaitre

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De Mecanique Appliquee ~:1 (1977), 69-84. J. Janson, Dugdale- Crack in a Material with Continuous Damage Formation- Engng. Fracture Mechanics ~ (1977), 891-899. J. Janson, A Continuous Damage Approach to the Fatigue ProcessEngng. Fracture Mechanics 10 (1978 a), 651-657. J. Janson, Damage Model of Crack Growth and Instability- Engng. Fracture Mechanics 10 (1978 b), 795-806. J. Janson, Damage Model of Creep- Fatigue Interaction- Engng. Fracture Mechanics 11 (1979), 397-403. M. Kachanov, Introduction to Continuum Damage Mechanics - K1uwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1896.

The maturity of the field is illustrated by the recent appearance of two monographs by Mura (1986) and Kachanov ( 1986) • lntroduction and General Overview 35 Fig. 3. Creep crack growth. P. Bazant, Mechanics of distributed cracking - Appl. Mech. Rev. R. Hayhurst et al, Development of Continuum Damage in the Creep Rupture of Notched Bars - Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 311 (1984 a), 103-129. R. Hayhurst et al, The Role of Continuum Damage in Creep Crack Growth- Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 311 (1984 b), 131-158.

4. Thermal effects Jf thermal effects are involved, the temperature T is introduced as an observable state variable together with its associated variable:entropy s. hese variablcs are summarized inthe table of figure 4. 2. 1. Definition A very useful and interesting concept to express the damage constitutive equations is the one of effective stress ~ which relates the stress to the area which effectively supports the load [RABOTNOV, 1969] [JAN50N, HULT, 1977]. For isotropic damage and a resisting area independant of the sign of the stress (bi-lateral conditions) 65 o= o - - - 'j 65-650 'j The concept is difficult to generalize to the case of anisotropic damage where the damage variable is of vectorial or tensorial ONAT, 1980] [MURAKAMI, 1981] [KRAJCINOVIC, [LECKIE, nature FON5EKA, 1981] [CHABOCHE, 1982].