By Thorsten M. Buzug
This quantity presents an summary of X-ray expertise and the historic improvement of recent CT structures. the focus of the ebook is an in depth derivation of reconstruction algorithms in 2nd and glossy 3D cone-beam structures. an intensive research of CT artifacts and a dialogue of useful matters corresponding to dose concerns supply additional perception into present CT structures. even though written commonly for graduate scholars, practitioners also will reap the benefits of this book.
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Additional info for Computer Tomography - From Photon Statistics to Modern Cone-Beam CT
2 Fundamentals of X-ray Physics There are three further mechanisms of X-ray attenuation that take the quantum mechanical interaction principles into account. These are either pure photon absorption processes (photoelectric absorption and pair production) or a mixture of scattering and photo energy absorption (Compton scattering). 2 Photoelectric Absorption The entire energy of an X-ray photon, hν, can be absorbed by an atom, if the binding energies of atomic electrons are smaller than hν.
Due to the conservation of linear momentum, called annihilation radiation, the two photons travel apart in approximately opposite directions. Since the entire electron and positron mass is transformed, each photon has an energy of keV. The annihilation radiation is measured by coincidence detection. Besides the physical mechanisms described above, it is also possible that the photon is scattered or absorbed by the nucleus. The photonuclear cross-section is, however, negligible for the diagnostic energy window, because this interaction contributes only to –% of the total attenuation within a narrow energy interval between a few MeV and a few tens of MeV (Leroy and Rancoita ).
This relativistic eﬀect grows with increasing kinetic energy of the electrons. In Fig. a the antenna characteristic for a relativistic dipole is shown. However, with respect to the total radiation characteristic of the X-ray tube, this eﬀect is less important because, as mentioned above, bremsstrahlung is produced in a multiple deceleration cascade. Since the direction of the electron changes with each deceleration step, in practice, the radiation is homogeneous over π. For this reason, X-ray Fig.