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Commentaries on the laws of England: In one volume, together by William Blackstone

By William Blackstone

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Read or Download Commentaries on the laws of England: In one volume, together with a copious glossary of legal terms employed; also, biographical sketches of writers referred ... and a chart of descent of English sovereigns PDF

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Extra resources for Commentaries on the laws of England: In one volume, together with a copious glossary of legal terms employed; also, biographical sketches of writers referred ... and a chart of descent of English sovereigns

Sample text

The ability of the individual toxins to kill the larvae of pests has been extensively investigated using molecular techniques. Sometimes the toxin is secreted as an inactive 'protoxin' that needs to be activated before it can kilL The activated toxin binds to receptor sites on gut epithelial cells and creates imbalance in the ionic make-up of the celL This is seen by the swelling and bursting of the cells due to osmotic shock. Subsequent symptoms are paralysis of the insect's BUGS AGAINST BUGS 33 mouth parts and gut.

Below the cuticle are present the cells involved ill the synthesis of cuticle. These are bound to it by a membrane. The rigidity of the cuticle is due to the exocuticle. Since the cuticle is incapable of growth, it must be shed from time to time as the insect grows, and a new and larger cuticle laid down in its place. This is what is commonly called 'shedding the skin'. Scientists prefer to call it moulting or ecdysis. The moulting process uses glycogen reserves for chitin synthesis. When a new cuticle is being formed, there is a certain order that the body follows.

Some are parasitic on crop plants. Plant parasitic nematodes spend part of their life cycle in soil or on the root surface. The biological control of nematodes is of two types, - natural and induced. Nematophagus fungi or literally, nematode eating fungi prevent susceptible nematode species from multiplying. These fungi are naturally associated with nematodes on perennial crops. More than 150 fungal species have been isolated from cyst and root-knot nematodes. Fungi in the soil may colonize the nematode female through its natural openings or by penetrating its cuticle.

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