By a Joseph Henry Press book, John T. Bruer, Susan M. Fitzpatrick
It is a booklet for those who love and comprehend technology and wish to grasp extra approximately modern examine frontiers. The questions addressed are as interesting as they're diversified: Is the human brain really detailed one of the primates? Does "dark topic" quite exist within the universe? What can the human genome let us know approximately our evolutionary historical past? those wide-ranging themes are introduced jointly by means of advantage in their effect on our knowing of ourselves--and via the quality of the authors: ten younger scientists and students, attaining the peak in their powers, who're specifically proficient in speaking their study findings to large audiences. They have been selected to obtain the celebrated Centennial Fellowships presented in 1998 by means of the McDonnell starting place, validated and funded through the past due aerospace pioneer James S. McDonnell.
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Additional resources for Carving Our Destiny: Scientific Research Faces a New Millennium
Eight of these trials were of the easy variety (with a single experimenter). The other two were critical probe trials of the seeing and not seeing conditions. So how did the animals react when they encountered two familiar experimenters, for example, one blindfolded, the other not? They entered the lab, but then (measurably) paused. And yet, having apparently noted the novelty of the circumstance, they were then just as likely to gesture to the person who could not see them as to the person who could.
These results troubled us, but not because we were committed to lowlevel models of chimpanzee cognition. , 1999). In what follows, I summarize these experiments and explore whether they are truly incongruent with the results of our gaze-following studies and, indeed, whether we really need the high-level model to explain our apes’ abilities to “understand” that gaze cannot pass through opaque barriers. Knowing Who Can See You Our first approach to asking our apes about “seeing” was to determine if they understood the psychological distinction between someone who could see them and someone who could not.
Does this mean that the human trait of representing the attentional aspect of gaze is superfluous? No, because although it may not be directly linked to the act of following gaze, the representation of attention (and other mental states) may play a profound role at a higher level of behavioral organization. Once humans evolved the capacity to represent other organisms not just as behaving beings, but as beings who attend, want, and think, it became necessary to use already-existing behaviors to respond to the world of the mind, as well as the world of behavior.