By Jean-Denis G. G. Lepage
Это исследование – хроника развития британских укрепсооружений с доисторических времен до конца правления Ричарда III в 1485 году. К каждому периоду истории подобраны соответствующие примеры, а также информацию об оружии и осадных устройствах. Более 250 иллюстраций подробно и образно расскажут о каждом строении.
From the time the Romans first set foot on Englands shore in fifty five BC, the British Isles have confronted a continuing possibility of overseas invasion. for that reason, the landscapes of britain, Scotland, and eire are dotted with historic protecting fortifications as diversified as their makers. Iron Age Celtic «hillforts,» Roman castra and Hadrians Wall, Anglo-Saxon dykes and Alfredian burhs, Norman mottes and stone-keeps, Edwardian castles, Irish tower homes all of them served to repel old intruders and plenty of nonetheless stand as tangible relics of a awesome prior. This learn chronicles the improvement of British fortifications from prehistoric occasions throughout the finish of Richard IIIs reign in 1485, offering the historical past of every form of constitution, correct examples, and data on guns and siege conflict. greater than 250 illustrations vividly aspect each one edifaces building and configuration.
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Extra info for British Fortifications Through the Reign of Richard III: An Illustrated History
C. only a few existed, but gradually the numbers increased and existing ones were strengthened. The further development seems to have occurred in the last century before the Roman conquest. In many cases, however, it is difﬁcult to say which are prehistoric and which are of later periods, and this rough timetable applies for England only. Events in western and northern regions, as well as in Ireland, were probably delayed by a century or so, possibly more. There are also variations from area to area in the size, type and density of sites.
When such a place was intended to be occupied only for a short while, it would probably have no well, relying on rainwater collected in cisterns. Such a refuge would also be difﬁcult to keep supplied as it was likely to be difﬁcult to access, and therefore would not be able to withstand a long attrition siege by determined and numerous aggressors. The expectation was that attackers would be simply raiders from the neighboring area who would rush through the land stealing anything movable and then return to their own territory before any large force could be gathered to oppose them.
Further north is a long , narrow rectangular structure known as the Banqueting Hall, although it is more likely to have been a ceremonial avenue or cursus monument approaching the site, and three circular earthworks known as the Sloping Trenches and Grainne’s Fort. All three are large ring barrows, which may have been built too close to the steep and subsequently slipped. To the south of the Royal Enclosure lies a ringfort known as Laoghaire’s Fort, where the eponymous king (said to be the last pagan king of Ireland) would have been buried in an upright position.