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Biophysics of Photoreceptors and Photomovements in by Wilhelm Nultsch (auth.), F. Lenci, F. Ghetti, G. Colombetti,

By Wilhelm Nultsch (auth.), F. Lenci, F. Ghetti, G. Colombetti, D.-P. Häder, Pill-Soon Song (eds.)

This quantity includes the lectures given on the NATO complicated examine Institute on "Biophysics of Photoreceptors and Photomovements in Microorganisms" held in Tir­ renia (Pisa), Italy, in September 1990. The Institute was once backed and typically funded through the clinical Affairs department of NATO; the actual technological know-how Committee and the Institute of Biophysics of nationwide study Council of Italy additionally supported the college and considerably contributed to its luck. it's our friendly responsibility to thank those institu­ tions. Scientists from very diversified backgrounds contributed to the certainty of this speedy constructing box of analysis, which has noticeable enormous development over the past years. The parts of craftsmanship ranged from behavioral sciences, supported by way of sophi­ sticated strategies similar to snapshot research or laser gentle scattering, to spectroscopy, ap­ plied, in several time domain names, to the learn of the first photoreactions, to electro­ body structure, biochemistry or molecular biology, with the purpose of studying many of the steps of the transduction chains and the way they regulate the motor gear of the cells. The organisms studied lined a variety, from micro organism to algae, fungi and different eukaryotes. hence, the ASI represented a profitable chance for wearing on and imple­ menting an interdisciplinary method of the learn of the biophysical foundation of photore­ ception and photosensory transduction in aneural organisms, with precise cognizance to the fundamental phenomena and the underlying molecular occasions. we are hoping that this booklet has stuck the spirit during which the ASI was once conceived.

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The mechanism involved in converting the energy of the electrochemical proton gradient into mechanical rotation within the flagellar motor is unknown, although there have b,een a wide variety of ideas over the past few years (Macnab, 1985). The ~Jj H + is formed as a consequence of either respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport, or the breakdown of ATP via the ATP synthase/hydrolase. It might therefore be expected that anything that affects the rate of electron transport will in turn effect the size of the ~JjH+ which may then also affect the rate of flagellar rotation, making the analysis of electron transport dependent taxis more complex.

J. W. , 1979, Fluorescence properties of reduced flavins and flavoproteins, Eur. I. , 101:13. , 1987, Photo- and polarotropism in fern protonemata, in: ''Phytochrome and Photoregulation in Plants," M. Furuya, Academic Press, Tokyo and New York. pp. 239-248. , 1986, Naturally occurring 5-deazaflavin coenzymes: Biological redox roles, Ace. Chem. , 19:216. , and Kispert, L. , 1986, Direct measurement of the lowest excited singlet state lifetime of all-trans-B-carotene and related carotenoids, Chem.

Molecular orbital calculations have also shown that rotation about the 14,15-single bond (between ring C and D) greatly affects the intensity ratio. Fluorescence polarization yields an angle of about 50° between the polarization axes of the Qy and Soret transition dipoles. The calculated angle ranges from 56-63° , depending on the principal electronic transition chosen for the Soret band (Song and Chae, 1979; Song and Suzuki, 1990). The calculated polarization directions for the two bands greatly depend on the shape/conformation of the tetrapyrrole chromophore.

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