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Biological Effects and Exposure Limits for ''Hot by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Extra resources for Biological Effects and Exposure Limits for ''Hot Particles'': Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (Ncrp Report, No. 130)

Sample text

The basal layer, continuous with the rest of the epidermis, surrounds each hair follicle and extends down into the dermis to a reported depth of from 1,500 to 5,000 Frn (Healy, 1971;Krebs, 1967). a Epidermal Thickness (km) Skin Site Thigh: medial lateral posterior Leg: medial lateral posterior Arm: medial lateral Forearm: back front Finger Abdomen, anterior Thorax, anterior Axilla Back Pubis Sole Face Forehead Cheek Neck Eyelid Palm Females Males 50-71 39-78 37-91 18-55 45-63 35-60 38-55 55-78 47-80 35-113 39-56 39-59 37-52 41-71 34-43 40-54 49-65 34-65 420-673 34-49 39-62 43-44 49-92 42-48 940-1,377 52 53-55 39-61 384-539 34-46 25-47 51 45-61 43 850-1,094 -b -b 61-102 -b 85-123 46-122 "FromICRP Publication 23 (ICRP, 1975).

The skin also has an important role in thermoregulation. Cooling can be achieved by dissipating heat via the surface blood vessels or by the evaporation of fluid secreted onto the surface of the skin by specialized structures. A layer of subcutaneous fat acts as an insulator for retention of heat. The skin has important sensory functions, it senses the external environment and mediates physical and chemical communications. There are major variations in the surface contours of the skin with body site such that creases and folds and the tight adherence of clothing may make it more likely to be exposed, for a period of time, from a hot particle.

Lb-Assumed photon (gamma or x-ray) emission data for hot-particle calculations. g Loevinger's empirical result is also included for comparison. In application of the electron point kernels to the more complicated geometry of hot-particle calculations, the assumption of simple density scaling of the distances through relevant material, as used in VARSKIN, was retained. 2 Photons. This calculation uses a set of photon absorbeddose build-up factors for a point-isotropic source in water obtained from ETRAN Monte Carlo calculations for energies from 2 MeV down 91t should be noted that Cross et al.

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