By Gary A. Flandro, Howard M. McMahon, Robert L. Roach

Within the swiftly advancing box of flight aerodynamics, it is vital for college kids to fully grasp the basics. this article, written through popular specialists, basically provides the elemental innovations of underlying aerodynamic prediction method. those thoughts are heavily associated with actual rules so they should be extra easily retained and their limits of applicability are absolutely liked. the final word aim is to supply the scholar with the required instruments to expectantly process and clear up of useful flight car layout difficulties of present and destiny curiosity. The textual content is designed to be used in path in aerodynamics on the complex undergraduate or graduate point. A finished set of workout difficulties is integrated on the finish of every bankruptcy.

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**Example text**

Notice that armed with these results, the atmospheric properties can be evaluated at any altitude within the layer and at the upper edge of the layer. The latter information then is used to evaluate conditions in the next layer. Atmospheric Property Variations in Isothermal Layers In an isothermal layer, the temperature is constant; therefore, the equation of state reduces to a relationship between pressure and density: ⎛ 1 ⎞ ρ=⎜ p. ⎝ RT ⎟⎠ Thus, substituting for the density, the hydrostatics equation becomes: dp ⎛ g ⎞ = dh, p ⎜⎝ RT ⎟⎠ where the combination in parentheses can be considered constant.

3 Mathematical Description of Fluid Flows Several concepts of great value in later derivations of the defining equations are reviewed in this section. It is important that students are familiar with these ideas, especially the mental images that they require. Students probably are already familiar with some or all of these ideas from their fundamental courses in mechanics or thermodynamics. Lagrangian versus Eulerian Mathematical Description In studying the motion of particles and rigid bodies in mechanics courses, students learned the Lagrangian approach in which each element of the system is represented by a detailed model of its absolute motion and its motion relative to other parts of the system.

However, suppose that we accurately measure the lift coefficient under conditions of geometric similarity on a model, for example, one-tenth the size of the actual vehicle. Is this enough? 2 Aerodynamic Variables 33 coefficient to estimate the lift on the prototype? The results of Eq. 22 show that this might not work. We must conduct the test so that the Reynolds and the Mach numbers on the model match those on the prototype. If this is done, we will achieve dynamic similarity and the predictions most likely will work if we correctly identified all of the key variables.