By Richard C Brown
This ebook is a background, research, and feedback of what the writer calls postmodern interpretations of technology (PIS) and the heavily comparable sociology of medical wisdom (SSK). This circulate lines its starting place to Thomas Kuhn's progressive paintings, The constitution of clinical Revolutions (1962), yet is extra severe. It believes that technological know-how is a social development , having little to do with nature, and depends on contextual forces resembling the race, type, gender of the scientist, laboratory politics, or the wishes of the army commercial advanced. because the Seventies, PIS has develop into trendy within the humanities, social sciences, and ethnic or women's reports, in addition to within the new educational self-discipline of technological know-how, know-how, and Society (STS). it's been attacked via various authors and the ensuing conflicts ended in the so-called technology Wars of the Nineteen Nineties. whereas the current e-book can be serious of PIS, it makes a speciality of its highbrow and political origins and attempts to appreciate why it grew to become influential within the Nineteen Seventies. The booklet is either an highbrow and a political heritage. It examines the strategies of Karl Popper, Karl Mannheim, Ludwik Fleck, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend, David Bloor, Steve Woolgar, Steve Shapin, Bruno Latour, and PIS-like doctrines in arithmetic. It additionally describes a number of philosophical contributions to PIS starting from the Greek sophists to twentieth century post-structuralists and argues that the disturbed political surroundings of the Vietnam struggle period was once serious to the increase of PIS. Contents: Rip van Winkle Awakes; A Golden Age and Its finish; elements within the PIS Bouillabaisse; A Canary within the Mine; The Unmasking of cause; proposal types and notion Collectives; The Reluctant innovative; whatever is going; The Sociological assault; The Deconstruction of arithmetic; Epistemic concerns; The Fallibility of Conventionalism and Fallibilism; Madison in 1973; Kto Kogo?.
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Extra resources for Are Science And Mathematics Socially Constructed?: A Mathematician Encounters Postmodern Interpretations of Science (Nonlinear Science)
We will defer consideration of the second question until later,16 and just observe here that a profound change in the Zeitgeist always involves more than purely intellectual causes. It may build upon previous intellectual currents, but it does not come about like an advance in science where, for example, a new theory is proposed to correct a gap in an existing theory; nor is it like a discovery in mathematics where a new theorem may change the outlook of an entire field. Instead, it usually parallels a wider social transformation.
An enduring consequence of World War I was that the West had lost its self-confidence. This emerging relativism in early twentieth century history and anthropology, as well as some technical doctrines in philosophy ranging from the classical period to the near present must in some sense have prepared the way for PIS. It is not clear, however, what the exact relations between all these ideas and PIS actually are. To borrow again from our septic tank analogy, the residue of many intellectual ingredients are clearly present in PIS—Hume’s critique of induction, epistemological relativism, and various forms of philosophical anti-realism being especially obvious.
Perhaps as the field continues to mature they will be replaced, as in the earlier case of computer science, by people having degrees in the field. 28 Levine February 4, 2009 10:17 World Scientific Book - 9in x 6in Rip van Winkle Awakes PostmodernSci 17 Moreover, constructivism, attacks on the objectivity, status, or epistemological privileging of science, and a general radicalism30 have spread beyond departments associated with STS and are now found throughout the humanities; they particularly infest English, Cultural Studies, Comparative Literature, and even as we pointed out above the History of Science.