By Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker
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Extra info for AIDS and Tuberculosis: A Deadly Liaison (Infection Biology Handbook Series)
Enthusiasm for such an approach comes from the observation that a small fraction of persons who become HIV infected are able spontaneously to control HIV replication and maintain normal CD4 þ cell counts without medications – some now for more than 30 years after the initial infection (for a review, see Ref. ). 3 The theory behind T-cell vaccination. T-cell vaccines would be expected not to prevent infection, but rather to modulate the viral load after infection, reducing it to a level at which the likelihood of disease progression and transmission would be markedly reduced.
And Walker, B. D. (2006) PD-1 expression on HIV-speciﬁc T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression. Nature, 443, 350–354. S. D. (2007) Upregulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-speciﬁc CD4 þ T cells correlates with disease progression and deﬁnes a reversible immune dysfunction. Nat. , 8, 1246–1254. , Erlich, H. L. (1996) Inﬂuence of combinations of human major histocompatibility complex genes on the course of HIV-1 infection. Nat. , 2, 405–411. M. D. (2008) Hla-B57/BÃ 5801 Hiv-1 elite controllers select for rare gag variants associated with reduced viral replication capacity and strong CTL recognition.
This led to the conclusion that regimens using DNA/NYVAC vaccine combinations are promising, and support the need for further clinical development . 7 Adeno-Associated Virus Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are single-stranded DNA parvoviruses that infect both dividing and nondividing cells , but do not cause disease. The characteristic feature of the adeno-associated virus is a deﬁciency in replication, and thus its inability to multiply in unaffected cells. However, new AAV particles are successfully generated in the presence of selected proteins derived from the adenovirus genome , or other viruses such as HSV .