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Advanced Curriculum Construction by Janardan Prasad and Vijay Kumari Kaushik

By Janardan Prasad and Vijay Kumari Kaushik

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Organizations may be viewed as information processing entities, whether or not they have formal MIS. 3. The collection, organization and transformation of data into information is related to the information requirements of managers for decision-making. This model illustrates the manner in which subsystems are related to other subsystems in an organization. In this case, linkage points are provided by data collection. It is here that data produced by other subsystems within the organization, as well as data from an organization's environment, are entered into the MIS.

The computer does not know this. It cannot evaluate data; it only performs mathematical operations. It is theoretically possible, of course, to compile a complete file on each student so that an "objective" calculation of the individual critical value can be made, but that would be unduly expensive. Moreover, translation of impressionistic knowledge about a student into data that a computer can handle is itself a subjective process and reduces the apparent objectivity of the computer programme.

Deviations from these expectations are easily recognized, measured, and corrected. Third, there is knowledge of the relationship between data and information (or between input and output) so that the manner in which data are processed to produce the desired output can be established. Fourth, there is little or no conflict or disagreement over system goals—everyone wants a paycheck and will be happy with a system that delivers it. Fifth, output has a well-defined and accepted use. These characteristics are deceptively simple and easy to achieve, but many systems do not have them, and they often perform poorly as a consequence.

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