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A Textbook of Orthodontics by T. D. Foster

By T. D. Foster

This textbook supplies an knowing of the historical past of medical orthodontics, yet as a lot of medical orthodontics has to be realized within the health center, the e-book emphasises equipment layout when you consider that this is often studied at the published web page. Divided largely into 3 elements the e-book first covers the foundations of enamel circulate and therapy making plans together with extractions. the ultimate chapters clarify the mechanisms of detachable, mounted and practical equipment treatment together with the therapy of the most classifications of malocclusion

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Extra resources for A Textbook of Orthodontics

Sample text

4 When the teeth are causing damage to the oral soft tissues. 5 When there is crowding or irregularity of the teeth which may predispose to periodontal and dental disease. 6 When there is adverse personal appearance caused by tooth position. 7 When the position of the teeth interferes with normal speech. These conditions provide the basis of the need for orthodontic treatment, which is aimed at altering the position and occlusion of the teeth. The intercuspal position is commonly referred to as the occlusion of the teeth, and for the sake of convenience this convention will be observed in the following chapters.

9). The reason for this differential forward movement is that the upper and lower premolars are much the same width, whereas the lower second primary molar is wider in mesio-distal dimension than the upper second primary molar. Variations from ideal development in Stage 1 The ideal development described above is all too rare. Furthermore, several investigators have pointed out the variability and unpredictability of the changes from primary to permanent dentition occlusion (Foster & Grundy 1986; Bishara et al.

Occlusal positions of the mandible (static occlusion) The positions of the mandible with the teeth in occlusal contact are, of course, infinitely variable. Two main positions can be described. a b Fig. 3. (a) Nasal respiration. The soft palate is in contact with the tongue, forming a posterior oral seal, (b) Oral respiration. The mandible is lowered and the soft palate elevated to maintain an oral airway. 28 CHAPTER 2 1 Retruded contact position (centric relation) The terminal position of the automatic path of mandibular movement from rest to occlusion which has not been deviated by tooth contact or abnormal muscle action.

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