By Kazuko Hirose Kawaguchi

The skill to form one's personal destiny-to make judgements at the foundation of one's personal beliefs and goals-is a uniquely human attribute. it truly is shared by way of the teams that people fonn-peoples, countries, and different communities--each certain by means of a standard future. The very lifestyles of other members and teams that experience this attribute almost promises that there'll be conflicts between them. And but it's also human to wish to discover universal floor with others. whilst contributors or teams emphasize their alterations, the result's clash; once they locate universal floor, cooperation turns into attainable. despite the fact that, even if it seems that cooperative efforts have resolved the assets of clash, now not all clash will disappear. clash is a normal a part of all human interplay. either clash and cooperation exist at the same time. All social phenomena can eventually be lowered to the query of ways those human features are reconciled and allowed to coexist at the similar plane.

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**Extra resources for A Social Theory of International Law: International Relations as a Complex System**

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15. This concept of a system was obtained by making the system concept proposed by Parsons and others more rigorous and conceptualizing it as an analytical concept. ), Toward a General Theory of Action, p. 5; Parsons, "An Approach to Psychological Theory in Terms of the Theory of Action," p. , Content Analysis, p. 5. 28 The Theory ofAction Systems set theory. , there exists a clear criterion for determining whether something is an element thereof. The criterion used to establish a set depends on the purpose of the investigation and thus it is relative.

Element 0" o ~. (:;- o Figure 5. Direct sum partition of a set My generalization of the concept of a variable, based on an idea developed by the psychologist F. Restle is as follows. 6 A variable is a concept of a direct sum partition of one set. The necessary and sufficient condition to be a set is that a standard of membership exists, by which it is clear if an element is attributed to the set or not. Every object that satisfies this condition is conceptualized as a set. Direct sum partition means that the set can be divided into several cells, and that each element of the set surely belongs to a certain cell yet belongs to no more than two cells.

If one abstracts the essence of structure in various fields, one finds that the different uses of this term have one feature in common: there are certain determined relations among the elements composing the phenomena. This approach enables one to abstract the concept of a mathematical function, namely, that there are principles of correspondence (relations) between the elements of a system. Thus, conversely, the structure of a system can be defined as the set of patterns of the functional interactions that exist among the elements of that system.