By Miriam Schapiro Grosof
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Extra resources for A Research Primer for the Social and Behavioral Sciences
How will an answer to this problem-question relate to what is already known? Will new or better evidence to support, refute, or extend some theory result from this study? 4. Is the problem-question formulated in such a way that anyone with reasonable experience in the problem area can decide what is to be found out, and why the answer is being sought? Finally, 5. Is there a procedure or method of investigation which will lead to an answer? Determining the do-ability of a problem—that is, deciding whether a research question is workable—is extremely difficult for the novice investigator; indeed, seasoned researchers undertaking a study in an unfamiliar area may be equally hard put to judge whether it is feasible within the practical constraints under which they must operate.
You will find it useful to keep the following categories in mind: 1. Personnel: full and part-timers such as typists, consultants, technicians, interviewers, coders, etc. ) Practical Aspects of Problem Formulation 37 2. ; living expenses for field studies. 3. Equipment: computers, measuring instruments, etc. 4. Supplies: tests, questionnaires, stamps and stationery for mailings, etc. 5. Contractual: rent, telephone, utilities, etc. 6. g. special rooms, storage facilities, etc. 7. Other: publication fees, reproduction (photocopy) services, abstracts and reference materials, computer time, etc.
Later studies attempted to test hypotheses that differences are attributable to income level, to extent of religious involvement, and to other variables. (See brief review, in Mechanic [1968, pp. " 2. , and Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectations and Pupils Intellectual Development. A study designed to identify effects of manipulated teacher expectancies on student achievement. Theoretical framework: the notion of the selffulfilling prophecy: differing expectancies induce differing responses to student behavior and differing "investment" in the students.