By Malcolm Bolton (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Guide to Soil Mechanics
The friction resistance of a soil is so dependent, as we shall see, on the density, arrangement, and surface roughness of the individual grains, that differences in the fundamental crystal-to-crystal coefficient of friction do not have such a large effect on the overall value. Nevertheless, a soil composed entirely of the soft and flaky clay minerals may possess only one-third the internal friction of a good quartz sand. It is within these bounds that engineers seek, by methods of soil testing described later, to measure the appropriate angle of internal friction of a soil sample.
Good geological interpretation can therefore be of the greatest value when a site investigation is being planned or conducted. 2 Minerals There is an immense variety of minerals in the Earth's crust. They are made up of combinations of the 92 naturally occurring elements. 1. Even these few oxides, combined together, and usually with silica, are responsible for hundreds of chemically distinct minerals, but the overriding importance of silicates and aluminosilicates will be clear. The three most significant engineering properties of a mineral grain are its scratch hardness H (measured on an arbitrary ten-point scale), its specific gravity G8 and its coefficient of friction.
Consider a column of water with vertical, parallel sides and a horizontal base Z 1 Z 2 . 1. 1 Water at rest transmit no tangential or shear forces, but only pressures normal to any object, and applying Newton's laws for equilibrium of the static column, we can determine the water pressure distribution easily. Firstly, by considering the horizontal equilibrium at a level disc B 1 B2 C 1 C2 of water at any depth, we can see that horizontal movement would take place unless at = a2. This shows us that the pressure in an ideal fluid at rest must be the same at all points on the same level.